Diversifying Agriculture for Better Lives

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This section compiles the references to our publications (including those from our predecessor institutions ICUC and GFU published since 1992). For hardcopies of available literature, please contact our webmaster (email hidden; JavaScript is required).

Articles

Articles

Ahmad NS, Basu SM, Redjeki ES, Murchie E, Massawe F, Azam-Ali S, Kilian A and Mayes S. 2013. Developing genetic mapping and marker-assisted breeding techniques in bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean L.). Acta Horticulturae (ISHS) 979:437-449.
Al-Shareef I, Sparkes D, Karunaratne AS and Azam-Ali S. 2013. The effect of temperature and drought stress on radiation use efficiency of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean (L.) Verdc.) landraces. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS) 979:675-682.
Bordoni P. 2013. Brokering knowledge on underutilised species: CFF’s web platform. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS) 979:589-595. [PDF]
Chai HH, Lai H-M, Guo H, Basu SM, Massawe F, Azam-Ali S, Graham N, Broadley M, May S and Mayes S. 2013. Developing xspecies approaches for genomics and transcriptomics – using resources developed in major species for research in bambara groundnut. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS) 979:773-778.
Kahane R, Hodgkin T, Jaenicke H, Hoogendoorn C, Hermann M, Keatinge JDH, Hughes J, Padulosi S, Looney N. 2013. Agrobiodiversity for food security, health and income. Agronomy for Sustainable Development (review article). DOI 10.1007/s13593-013-0147-8
Karunaratne AS, Crout NMJ, Al-Shareef I and Azam-Ali S. 2013. Effect of temperature on growth and yield of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean (L.) Verdc.) during early and late season drought. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS) 979:661-667.
Mayes S, Basu SM, Molosiwa O, Redjeki ES, Ahmad NS, Khan F, Zehra S, Noah S, Mayes K, Roberts J, Stadler F, Massawe F, Kilian A and Azam-Ali S. 2013. Molecular analysis of bambara groundnut, an underutilised African legume crop as part of the BAMLINK project – what lessons can we learn? Acta Horticulturae (ISHS) 979:451-458.
Molosiwa O, Basu SM, Stadler F, Azam-Ali S and Mayes S. 2013. Assessment of genetic variability of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean (L.) Verdc.) accessions using morphological traits and molecular markers. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS) 979:779-790.
Padulosi S, Galluzzi G and Bordoni P. 2013. Una agenda global para las especies olvidadas e infrautilizadas. Revista Ambienta (Spain) 102: 26-37. [PDF]
Taylor M, Paroda R, Jaenicke H and Mathur P. 2013. Implementing the strategy for the conservation through use of underutilised crops in the Pacific. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS) 979:533-539.
Trognitz B, Cros E, Assemat S, Davrieux F, Forestier-Chiron N, Ayestas E, Kuant A, Scheldeman X, Hermann M. 2013. Diversity of Cacao Trees in Waslala, Nicaragua: Associations between Genotype Spectra, Product Quality and Yield Potential. PLoS ONE 8(1): e54079. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054079
Mayes S, Massawe FJ, Alderson PG, Roberts JA, Azam-Ali SN, Hermann M. 2012. The potential for underutilized crops to improve security of food production. Journal of Experimental Botany 63(3): 1075-9. doi: 10.1093/jxb/err396
Looney N, Hoogendoorn C, Hughes J, Kahane R, Hermann M, Keatinge JDH, Palmier H. 2012. Realizing the benefits of enhanced agrobiodiversity. New Agriculturalist, January 2012, 2pp.
Trognitz B, Scheldeman X, Hansel-Hohl K, Kuant A, Grebe A, Hermann M. 2011. Genetic population structure of cacao plantings within a young production area in Nicaragua. PLoS One 3(6): e16056. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0016056
Hermann M, Pasiecznik N. 2010. Biodiversity back on the menu. Will traditional crops return to the dinner table? Issues (Australia) 93: 9-15.
Hermann M. Bernet T. 2009. The transition of maca from neglect to market prominence: Lessons for improving use strategies and market chains of minor crops. Agricultural Biodiversity and Livelihoods Discussion Papers 1. Bioversity International, Rome, Italy, 101 p.
Jaenicke H, Guarino L, Dawson, IK & Hermann M. 2009. Impacts of Underutilized Plant Species Promotion on Biodiversity. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Underutilized Plants for Food Security, Nutrition, Income and Sustainability Development; 3-6 March 2008, Arusha, Tanzania. ISHS, Belgium.
Höschle-Zeledon I, Jaenicke H. 2007. A Strategic Framework for Global Research and Development of Underutilized Plant Species: a Contribution to the Enhancement of Indigenous Vegetables and Legumes. Acta Hort. (ISHS) 752:103-110.
Irungu Ch, Mburu J, Maundu P, Grum M, Höschle-Zeledon I. 2007. Analysis of Markets for African Leafy Vegetables within Nairobi and its Environs and Implications for On-farm Conservation of Biodiversity. GFU, Rome, Italy. [pdf]
Padulosi S and Höschle-Zeledon I. 2004. Underutilized Plant Species: What are they? LEISA 20(1): 5-6. [pdf]
Padulosi S, Hodgkin T, Williams JT, Haq N. 2002. Underutilised Crops: Trends, Challenges and Opportunities in the 21st Century. In Engels JMM, Ramanatha RV, Brown AHD, Jackson MT, editors. Managing Plant Genetic Diversity. IPGRI, Rome, p. 323-338. [pdf]
Lovett PN, Haq N. 2000. Diversity of the Sheanut tree (Vitellaria paradoxa) in Ghana. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 47:293-304.
Lovett PN, Haq N. 2000. Evidence for anthropic selection of the Sheanut tree (Vitellaria paradoxa). Agroforestry Systems 48:273-288.
Paudyal KP, Haq N. 2000. In vitro Propagation of Pummelo (Citrus grandis L. Osbeck). In vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology - Plant 36(6): 511-516. [pdf]
Hughes A, Haq N. 1999. Annonaceae: Fruits for the Future. Proceedings of 2nd International Congress on Annonaceae; 26-28 October 1999, Universidad de Ciencias y Artes del Estado de Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Mexico.
Haq N. 1996. Origin and Centre of Diversity of Crop Species. In: Quah SC, Kiew R, Bujang I, Kusnan M, Haq N, de Groot P, editors. Underutilised Tropical Plant Genetic Resources: Conservation & Utilisation. Penerbit Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia. p. 11-19.
Haq N. 1996. Domestication of Underutilised Crops. In: Quah SC, Kiew R, Bujang I, Kusnan M, Haq N, de Groot P, editors. Underutilised Tropical Plant Genetic Resources: Conservation & Utilisation. Penerbit Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia. p. 21-32
Haq N. 1996. New Crops: Potential for Development. In: Quah SC, Kiew R, Bujang I, Kusnan M, Haq N, de Groot P, editors. Underutilised Tropical Plant Genetic Resources: Conservation & Utilisation. Penerbit Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia. p. 67-77.
Haq N. 1996. Molecular Systematics: a Tool to Establish Genetic Diversity. In: Quah SC, Kiew R, Bujang I, Kusnan M, Haq N, de Groot P, editors. Underutilised Tropical Plant Genetic Resources: Conservation & Utilisation. Penerbit Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia. p. 161-168
Haq N. 1996. Enhancement of Germplasm. In: Quah SC, Kiew R, Bujang I, Kusnan M, Haq N, de Groot P, editors. Underutilised Tropical Plant Genetic Resources: Conservation & Utilisation. Penerbit Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia. p.201-206.
Haq N. 1996. Gene Transfer through Wide Hybridization. In: Quah SC, Kiew R, Bujang I, Kusnan M, Haq N, de Groot P, editors. Underutilised Tropical Plant Genetic Resources: Conservation & Utilisation. Penerbit Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia. p. 207-218.
Haq N. 1996. Commercialization of New Crops. In: Quah SC, Kiew R, Bujang I, Kusnan M, Haq N, de Groot P, editors. Underutilised Tropical Plant Genetic Resources: Conservation & Utilisation. Penerbit Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia. p. 317-321.
Haq N. 1996. International Policy on New Crops. In: Quah SC, Kiew R, Bujang I, Kusnan M, Haq N, de Groot P, editors. Underutilised Tropical Plant Genetic Resources: Conservation & Utilisation. Penerbit Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia. p. 333-344.
Books and Reports

Books

Kunz R. 2007. Control of Post Harvest Disease (Botryodiplodia sp.) of Rambutan and Annona Species by Using a Bio-Control Agent (Trichoderma sp.). ICUC & ITI, Sri Lanka. [pdf]

Williams JT, Haq N. 2002. Global Research on Underutilized Crops. An Assessment of Current Activities and Proposals for Enhanced Cooperation. ICUC, Southampton, UK. [pdf]

ICUC. 2001. Status of Underutilized Crops in Pakistan. ICUC, Southampton, UK.

Smartt J, Haq N, editors. 1997. Domestication, Production and Utilization of New Crops. ICUC, Southampton, UK.

Williams JT, editor. 1996. Cereals and Pseudocereals. Chapman & Hall, London.

Potulski N. 1995. Alternative Crops for Drug Growing Areas in Asia (Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nepal, Thailand). ICUC, Southampton, UK.

Potulski N. 1995. Alternative Crops for Drug Growing Areas in Latin America (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia). ICUC, Southampton, UK.

Anthony K, Meadley J, Röbbelen G. 1993. New Crops for Temperate Regions. Chapman & Hall, London.

Williams JT, editor. 1993. Pulses and Vegetables. Chapman & Hall, London.

Anthony K, Haq N, de Groot P, editors. 1992. Underutilized Tropical Fruits in Asia. ICUC/CSC, London.

Wickens GE, Haq N, Day P. 1989. New Crops for Food and Industry. Chapman & Hall, London.

Position Papers and Research Reports

Ndindeng SA, Bella-Manga, Kengue J, Talle, Levai DL. 2008. Quality Standards for Dacryodes edulis (Safou). Research Report No. 5. ICUC, Colombo, Sri Lanka. [pdf]

Barry, IN. 2008. A Value Chain Analysis for the Sri Lankan Beli and Woodapple Subsectors. Research Report No. 4. ICUC, Colombo, Sri Lanka.[pdf]

Daniel JN and Dudhade PA. 2007. Analysis of Economic Characteristics of Value Chains of Three Underutilised Fruits of India. Research Report No. 3. ICUC, Colombo, Sri Lanka. [pdf]

Barry, IN. 2007. A Value-Chain Analysis for the Sri Lankan Rambutan Subsector. Research Report No. 2. ICUC, Colombo, Sri Lanka. [pdf]

Dawson IK, Guarino L, Jaenicke H. 2007. Underutilised Plant Species: Impacts of Promotion on Biopersity. Position Paper No. 2. ICUC, Colombo, Sri Lanka. [pdf]

Abeyrathne AHMSWB, Jaenicke H. 2006. Potential for Small-Scale Processing and Marketing of Tropical Fruits in the Kandy, Galle and Horana pisional Secretariat pisions of Sri Lanka. Research Report No. 1. ICUC, Colombo, Sri Lanka. [pdf]

Dawson IK, Jaenicke H. 2006. Underutilised Plant Species: The Role of Biotechnology. Position Paper No. 1. ICUC, Colombo, Sri Lanka. [pdf]

Strategy Documents, Surveys & Case Studies

Mayes s, Massawe FJ, Alderson PG, Roberts JA, Azam-Ali SN, Hermann M. 2011. The potential for underutilized crops to improve security of food production. J. Exp. Bot. 1-5. [pdf]

Chishakwe NE. 2008. The Role of Policy in the Conservation and Extended Use of Underutilized Plant Species: a Cross-National Policy Analysis. GFU, Rome, Italy. [pdf]

Chishakwe NE. 2008. An Overview of the International Regulatory Frameworks that Influence the Conservation and Use of Underutilized Plant Species. GFU, Rome, Italy. [pdf]

Will M. 2008. Promoting Value Chains of Neglected and Underutilized Species for Pro-Poor Growth and Biopersity Conservation. GFU, Rome, Italy. [pdf]

Gruere G, Nagarajan L, King EDIO. 2007. Marketing underutilized plant species for the poor: a case study of minor millets in Kolli Hills, Tamil Nadu, India. GFU, Rome, Italy. [pdf]

Hoeschle-Zeledon I, Padulosi S, Bordoni P. 2007. Inviting all the world’s crops to the table. GFU, Rome, Italy. [pdf]

Hornal D, Timpo S, Gruere G. 2007. Marketing underutilized crops: the case of the African Garden Egg (Solanum aethiopicum) in Ghana. GFU, Rome, Italy. [pdf]

Larson J. 2007. Relevance of geographical indications and designations of origin for the sustainable use of genetic resources. GFU, Rome, Italy. [pdf]

Aboagye LM, Obirih-Opareh N, Amissah L, Adu-Dapaah H. 2007. Analysis of existing national policies and legislation that enable or inhibit the wider use of underutilized plant species for food and agriculture in Ghana. GFU, Rome, Italy. pdf]

ABTRACO. 2006. Analysis of existing national policies and legislation that enable or inhibit the wider use of underutilized plant species for food and agriculture in Nepal. GFU, Rome, Italy. pdf]

Al-Faayad M, Ajlouni M. 2006. Analysis of existing national policies and legislation that enable or inhibit the wider use of underutilized plant species for food and agriculture in Jordan. GFU, Rome, Italy. pdf]

BCN. 2006. Analysis of existing national policies and legislation that enable or inhibit the wider use of underutilized plant species for food and agriculture in Zambia. GFU, Rome, Italy. pdf

Buerli M. 2006. Farro in Italy: a desk-study. GFU, Rome, Italy. pdf

Quartermain AR. 2006. Analysis of national and institutional policies in Papua New Guinea that directly or indirectly affect the use of currently underutilized species of crops for food and agriculture. GFU, Rome, Italy. pdf

USPCA. 2006. Analysis of existing national policies and legislation that enable or inhibit the wider use of underutilized plant species for food and agriculture in Uzbekistan. GFU, Rome, Italy. pdf

Jaenicke H, Hoschle-Zeledon I, editors. 2006. Strategic Framework for Underutilized Plant Species Research and Development, with Special Reference to Asia and the Pacific, and to Sub-Saharan Africa. ICUC, Colombo, Sri Lanka, GFU, Rome, Italy. [pdf]

Jaenicke H, Hoschle-Zeledon I, Manning N, editors. 2006. Proceedings of regional consultation workshop: Strategies for research and development of underutilized plant species in Africa; 24 - 26 May 2006, Nairobi, Kenya. ICUC, Colombo Sri Lanka, GFU, Rome Italy. [pdf]

Jaenicke H, Hoschle-Zeledon I, Manning N, editors. 2006. Proceedings of regional consultation workshop: Strategies for research and development of underutilized plant species in Asia and the Pacific; 16-17 March 2006, Colombo, Sri Lanka. ICUC, Colombo, Sri Lanka, GFU, Rome, Italy. [pdf]

Nill D, Böhnert E. 2006. Value Chains for the Conservation of Biological persity for Food and Agriculture - Potatoes in the Andes, Ethiopian Coffee, Argan Oil from Morocco and Grasscutters in West Africa. GTZ, Eschborn, Germany, GFU, Rome, Italy. [pdf]

IPGRI, GFU, MSSRF. 2005. Agricultural Biopersity and Elimination of Hunger and Poverty - The Chennai Platform for Action in English, French, Spanish, Italian, Chinese, Arabic, Russian. IPGRI and GFU, Rome, Italy, MSSRF, Chennai, India. [ENG] [ARA] [CHN] [FRA] [ITA] [RUS] [SPA]

Breitschuh U, editor. 2005. Marketing Strategies and Capacity Strengthening to Realize the Economic Potential of Underutilized Plant Species. GFU, Italy. [pdf]

Withers L. 2005. Strategic Approaches for Funding Work on Underutilized Species. GFU, Italy. [pdf]

GFU. 2004. Approaches and Decision Steps for the Promotion and Development of Underutilized Plant Species. GFU, Italy. [pdf]

Ledda B. 2004. Market Opportunities for Underutilized Species Products - What does the market want? GFU, Italy. [pdf]

Hazekamp T. 2004. Organizations involved in the Development of Underutilized Species - An Analysis of Institutional Areas of Interest In Relation to Competitive Advantages. GFU, Italy. [pdf]

Rojas W, Soto JL, Carrasco E, editors. 2004. Study on the social, environmental and economic impacts of quinoa promotion in Bolivia. GFU, Italy. [pdf]

Rojas W, Soto JL, Carrasco E, editors. 2004. Estudio de los impactos sociales, ambientales y economicos de la promocion de la quinua en Bolivia. GFU, Italy. [pdf]

Hazekamp T. 2004. Development of Underutilized Species - An Analysis of Best Practices based on Case Studies for Devil's Claw, Quinoa and Physic Nut. GFU, Italy. [pdf]

Gundel S, Hoschle-Zeledon I, Krause B, Probst K, editors. 2003. Underutilized Plant Species and Poverty Alleviation. GFU, Italy, InWEnt, Germany. [pdf]

Hazekamp T. 2003. Landscaping Institutional Strategies and Interests for the Development and Promotion of Underutilized Species. GFU, Italy. [pdf]

Dell'Orco P. 2003. Analysis of a Questionnaire "Research Activities Related to Underutilized Plant Species. GFU, Italy. [pdf]

Grote K. 2003. The increased harvest and trade of devil's claw (harpagophytum procumbens) and its impacts on the peoples and environment of Namibia, Botswana and South Africa. GFU, Italy. [pdf]

Euler H and Gorriz D. 2003. Jatropha curcas in Africa. GFU, Italy. [pdf]

Henning RK. 2003. Case Study Jatropha curcas in India. GFU. Italy. [pdf]

Anne Moorhead. n.d. Missing the Market - How exotic foods are being barred from the EU. UNCTAD, the CBI, Netherlands, GTZ, Eschborn, Germany, GFU, Rome, Italy, IPGRI, Rome, Italy. [pdf]

Dinh, NV. n.d. Analysis of existing national policies that enable or inhibit the wider use of underutilized plant species in Vietnam. GFU, Rome, Italy. [pdf]

IPGRI, GFU, MSSRF. n.d. Hidden Hunger. IPGRI, Rome, Italy, GFU, Rome, Italy, MSSRF, Chennai, India. [pdf]

Pastor S, Fuentealba B, Ruiz M. n.d. Underutilized Crops in Peru: Some conceptual and political consideration. GFU, Rome, Italy. [pdf]

Presentations

Hermann M. 2011. The Transition from Subsistence use to Markets: Lessons from South America for Improving Development Strategies of Neglected Crops. The 2nd International Symposium on Underutilised Plant Species; 27 June - 1 July 2011, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.[pdf]

Hermann M. 2011. Neglected Species for Agricultural persification: The Role of Collaborative Action. The 2nd International Symposium on Underutilised Plant Species; 27 June - 1 July 2011, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.[pdf]

Bordoni P. 2011. Brokering Knowledge on underutilized Species: CFF's web platform. The 2nd International Symposium on Underutilised Plant Species; 27 June - 1 July 2011 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.[pdf]

Irungu Ch, Mburu J, Maundu P, Grum M, Höschle-Zeledon I. 2007. Analysis of Markets for African Leafy Vegetables within Nairobi and its Environs and Implications for On-farm Conservation of Biopersity. GFU, Rome, Italy. [pdf]

Padulosi S, Höschle-Zeledon I, Bordoni P. 2007. Minor crops and underutilized species: lessons and prospects. In Maxted N, Dulloo E, Ford-Lloyd BV, Iriondo J, Kell SP, Turok J, editors. Crop wild relative conservation and use. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Crop Wild Relative Conservation and Use, 14-17 September 2005, Agrigento, Italy. CAB International, Wallingford. [pdf]

Jaenicke H, Dawson IK, Guarino L. 2007. Promotion of underutilised plants and biopersity: Lessons for fruits and markets. International Seminar on Economics and Marketing of Tropical and Subtropical Fruits; 16 - 18 July 2007, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.[pdf]

Jaenicke H, Hai VM, Hung NQ. 2007. Training resource centres for processing of underutilised crops: ICUC's experience in Vietnam. Workshop of scoping study on enhancing the safe production, promotion and utilisation of indigenous vegetables by women in Vietnam; 7 - 8 May 2007, Hanoi, Vietnam.[pdf]

Jaenicke H, Lengkeek A. 2006. Marketing the Products of Underutilised Crops - Challenges and Opportunities for Pro-Poor Economic Development.Workshop on Underutilised Crops during XXVII International Horticultural Congress; 14 August 2006, Seoul, S Korea.[pdf]

Giuliani A, Padulosi S, Höschle-Zeledon I. 2004. Linking Rural Communities’ Livelihoods with Markets of Underutilized Species: Case Study in Syria. In Bokelmann W, editors. Proceedings XVth International Symposium on Horticultural Economics and Management. Acta Horticulturae 655, ISHS, 297-306. [pps]

Proceedings

Smartt J., Haq N. 2008. 5th International Symposium on New Crops and Uses: Their role in a rapidly changing world; 3-4 September 2007, Southampton, UK. CUC, UK. [pdf]

Jaenicke H, Hoschle-Zeledon I, Manning N, editors. 2006. Proceedings of regional consultation workshop: Strategies for research and development of underutilized plant species in Africa; 24 - 26 May 2006, Nairobi, Kenya. ICUC, Colombo, Sri Lanka and GFU, Rome Italy. [pdf]

Jaenicke H, Hoschle-Zeledon I, Manning N, editors. 2006. Proceedings of regional consultation workshop: Strategies for research and development of underutilized plant species in Asia and the Pacific; 16 and 17 March 2006, Colombo, Sri Lanka. ICUC, Colombo Sri Lanka and GFU, Rome Italy. [pdf]

Bala Ravi S, Höschle-Zeledon I, Swaminathan MS, Frison E, editors. 2006. Hunger and poverty: the role of biopersity – Report of an International Consultation on The Role of Biopersity in Achieving the UN Millennium Development Goal of Freedom from Hunger and Poverty; 18-19 April 2005, Chennai, India. MSSRF, Chennai, India, IPGRI, Rome, Italy, GFU, Rome, Italy. [pdf]

Haq N, Hughes A, editors. 2003. Fruits for the Future in Asia. Proceedings of a Regional Consultation Meeting on Utilization of Tropical Fruit Trees in Asia; 6 - 8 February 2002, Bangkok, Thailand. ICUC, Southampton, UK. [pdf]

ICUC. 2001. Status of Underutilized Crops in Pakistan. ICUC, Southampton, UK.

Haq N, Atkinson M, editors. 1999. Tropical and Sub-tropical Fruits of West Africa. Proceedings of 1st Regional meeting on Tropical and Subtropical Fruits of West Africa; 15-16 October, 1998, Accra, Ghana. ICUC, Southampton, UK.

Anwar R, Haq N, Masood S, editors. 1998. Medicinal Plants of Pakistan. ICUC, Southampton, UK.

Haq N, Anthony M, Sarwar M, Ahmad Z, editors. 1998. Underutilized Crops of Pakistan. Proceedings of a Symposium Held at the Plant Genetic Resources Institute, National Agricultural Research Centre; May 28-29, 1997, Islamabad, Pakistan. PGRI, Pakistan.

Anthony K, Haq N, editors. 1997. Underutilized Tropical Fruits in Asia Network (UTFANET). ICUC, Southampton, UK.

Anthony K, Haq N, de Groot P, editors. 1992. Underutilized Tropical Fruits in Asia. ICUC/CSC, London.

Anthony K, Haq N, Cilliers B, editors. 1995. Genetic Resources and Utilization of Underutilized Crops in Southern and Eastern Africa. Proceedings of Symposium held at the Institute for Tropical and Subtropical Crops Nelspruit; August 1995, South Africa. FAO, Italy, ICUC, UK & CSC.